Understanding Base Stocks
Modern oils are the product of over 100 years of scientific development. The advances made in oil technology have been driven by the lubrication requirements of increasingly sophisticated machinery, such as the automobile engine. Current fully-formulated engine oils, sometimes called PCEO (Passenger Car Engine Oil), are highly-complex products. The oil inside the fancy packaging is created by blending one or more groups of base stocks with […]
Questions have been raised about the possibility of an engine oil filter trapping the anti-wear engine oil additive ZDDP, thereby reducing the value of ZDDPlusTM. The fact is for the past 60 years, ZDDP alone has been used successfully as an EP (Extreme Pressure) lubricant additive in engines with a wide range of oil filters. Common sense says this fact alone raises serious doubt that an oil filter […]
There are some automotive industry representatives who are addressing the “flat-tappet and ZDDP” issue by claiming the whole situation is hype, and there is nothing to worry about. Some say the ASTM Sequence III tests are adequate to ensure an oil which will pass that test will protect all flat-lifter based valve trains.
On the other side of the issue, the classic and performance car world is seeing wear […]
A common problem cropping up in discussions of oil additives is the use of incorrect dosing amounts, usually due to a misunderstanding of how dilutions and resulting concentrations are calculated. In chemical formulation (unlike cooking) the quantity of a specific atom or molecule determines its characteristics when combined with other chemicals. Since the weight of a single atom or molecule is a known quantity, we measure bulk amounts […]
Many people are pointing to diesel or heavy-duty oils as good replacements for the newer SM oils with reduced ZDDP levels. Many heavy-duty oils are sold as dual-duty oils, for both heavy-duty gasoline and diesel usage with a caveat: They are not intended to be used for vehicles manufactured after 1988 equipped with long-life catalytic converters.
An indication that the situation vis-à-vis EP (Extreme Pressure) agents in oil has […]
The EP agent of choice in high-performance engine oil has been ZDDP for over 50 years. With modern SM oils now being formulated with reduced amounts of phosphorus in the form of ZDDP, it is logical to look elsewhere for an oil which still contains sufficient ZDDP for a classic or high-performance street car. There are some racing oils that have an amount of ZDDP which, at first […]
There are many laboratories and oil analysis services which offer VOA (Virgin Oil Analysis) or UOA (Used Oil Analysis). In order to correctly utilize a testing lab and ensure optimum accuracy in the results, pay attention to exactly what testing services are advertised. Laboratories, like most businesses, concentrate on a certain set of services, and have internal procedures and equipment dedicated to these services. That means if a […]
The avid automobile enthusiast can often be found reading papers on engine and oil technology. As is the case with all fields of specialization, the lubrication industry has its own terminology and abbreviations. The people at ZPlus figured it would be a useful tool to have a short glossary of terminology and abbreviations, as well as links to more in-depth information as presented in our other Tech Briefs.
In the Dec. 2007 GM Techlink publication for GM dealers and technicians, GM engineer and author Bob Olree speculated that the current spate of cam and lifter failures being caused by newer oil is a myth, similar to others which have persisted in automotive mythology. He opens with the statement:
“Engine Oil Myths – Over the years there has been an overabundance of engine oil myths. Here are some facts you […]